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 HYIP FRAUDES...

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Date d'inscription : 05/04/2005

MessageSujet: HYIP FRAUDES...   Mer 11 Mai - 16:52

A: Investment "trading programmes" with very high yields
High yield investment program (HYIP) scams are currently being perpetrated by highly organized and relatively impressive fraudsters offering investment opportunities to individuals and corporations who either seek high yields on their investment(s) of money/assets. To those seeking high yields on their investments, fraudsters offer exorbitant yields that entice potential investors to invest their money. Many fraudsters offer HYIPs or the direct trading of bank and/or government-issued instruments (MTNs, BGs, LCs, SLCs, U.S. Treasuries, GNMAs, etc...) which they say are sanctioned by certain governmental bodies, such as the U.S. Federal Reserve (FED), U.S. Department of Treasury, International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, etc., for the funding of humanitarian projects.

Often the deception is elaborate. Meetings are usually held in good hotels, fine restaurants, or airports, or even in offices located within bank buildings, with the fraudsters showing up in fancy cars, limousines or private airplanes. The fraudsters usually are well-dressed, accompanied by a partner/subordinate/bodyguard, and carry one or two mobile phones, which are constantly ringing during a meeting. Some fraudsters only operate via telephone and they exchange communications and documentation via fax and e-mail. These fraudsters discourage or continually cancel pre-arranged meetings for one reason or another. However just as often victims are encouraged either innocently or otherwise to enter such a schemes by those who are investors themselves or those attempting to seek recovery of money they have previously lost. Sometimes these investors are working with the fraudsters.

Those most at risk, as preferred targets of such fraudsters, include:

Individuals or corporations in possession of large cash balances or those in control of others cash such as a solicitor's client account.
Religious individuals, elderly people and charitable organizations who prefer to take people for their word or who are susceptible to a glib tongue.
Businessmen in financial trouble, and inexperienced/naive investors looking for a fast return.

The following are typical indicators of potential frauds.

Those who promote HYIPs usually ape the requirements of legitimate offshore hedge funds, by first stating that their principal requires that an application package, which will include a Letter of Intent (LOI), Proof of Funds (POF), copy of passport, information form, and confidentiality and/or non-circumvention/non-disclosure agreements. These are to be completed by investors and provided to them for delivery to the principal for the specific purpose of approving both the investors and their money/assets for participation in the proposed HYIP. In reality the fraudster wants to ensure his potential victim has money to be parted with whilst instilling in his victim the need for confidentiality.
Such promotors will sometimes require non-refundable up-front fees/deposits, purportedly to defray traveling and other expenses, supposedly incurred in the attempt to "facilitate" the investor's entry into such secretive "trading programmes".
All dealings will be through agents, facilitators, or program coordinators/managers and NOT with the principal who controls the investment program and whose identity will not be revealed for various reasons (travelling overseas, too busy, need for secrecy etc.). This curtails any ability to perform the most important aspect of any due-diligence research, counterparty risk analysis.
All correspondence/documentation will usually be transmitted only via fax or e-mail, and those who seek loans for funding projects or potential investors who are offered participation in HYIPs will not be able to verify those representations made by the fraudsters.
The deal involves complex and unusual financial instruments, or various highly unconventional or improper uses of legitimate instruments, such as US Treasuries, Treasury Bills, GNMAs, etc….
The fraudsters usually seek control of or access to investors' money or assets for investors' participation in HYIPs. They either require that the investors' money or assets be transferred to the fraudsters' account, or they insist on having signatory authority of the account(s) in which investors' money or assets is/are on deposit, or they require that the money or assets be transferred to a bank designated by the fraudsters and be deposited into a sub-account under the fraudsters' account. To get control of or access to investors' money/assets, the fraudsters insist that investors issue a mandate or power of attorney to them or to a third party who is friendly to the fraudsters allowing the fraudsters or their friend to negotiate, commit and/or use the investors' money/assets to "facilitate" trading. The investor is often initially told his funds would be a in "blocked fund account" to which only the investor has access. This may be the case at the early stage of the fraud but the fraudster will gain control/access as described above fairly quickly.
They will often fraudulently claim that the loans for funding projects or the opportunity for participation in HYIPs are made available only to select individuals/corporations and that they must "hurry up" as the opportunity will close soon.
They will usually fraudulently claim that the principal(s) to whom the fraudsters have direct access are commitment holders or agents licensed by the Federal Reserve (FED), or are agents for the U.S. Treasury Department. They also claim to have access to officials of International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations or World Bank who operate such trading program's. Frequently the victim is told that because the profits are so vast they are required by the aforementioned orgainsations to re-invest a part of their profits in charitable or humanitarian projects in remote parts of the world.
They will demand that everything must be kept secret and if the investor or any person associated with the investor ever tells anyone, he/she will be kicked out and never be able to participate in another such opportunity.

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B: Advance fee schemes for "alternative funding mechanisms"
Advance-fee schemes for loans for funding projects are being perpetrated by fraudsters posing as agents, brokers/intermediaries or co-ordinators/facilitators who offer conventional or unconventional funding. To those seeking loans, fraudsters usually offer bogus funding facilities, which are made to appear unique and accessible only to the very wealthy.

Those most at risk as preferred targets of such fraudsters have exactly the same features as mentioned in the HYIP target list.

The following are typical indicators of potential frauds:.

Those who promote loans for funding projects usually require a non-refundable up-front fee or deposit.
All dealings will be through agents, facilitators, or co-ordinators and NOT with the principal, and the identity of the principal(s) will not be revealed for various reasons (traveling overseas, too busy, etc.), thus preventing the most basic aspect of due-diligence research, i.e. counterparty risk analysis.
All correspondence/documentation will usually be transmitted only via fax or e-mail, and those who seek loans for funding projects will not be able to verify those representations made by the fraudsters.
The deal will generally involve complex and unusual financial instruments, or the unconventional and often improper use of such legitimate instruments as US Treasuries, Treasury Bills, or other debt instruments (assignments, multiple leveraging, etc…).
Should there be any legitimate funding entity in the transaction, the fraudsters usually seek control of or access to the loan proceeds for borrower's participation in HYIPs (see B, below). They either require that the borrower's loan proceeds be transferred to the fraudsters' account, or they insist on having signatory authority of the account(s) in which borrower's loan proceeds are on deposit. They may require that the money be transferred to a bank designated by the fraudsters and be deposited into a sub-account under the fraudsters' account. To get control of or access to borrower's loan proceeds, the fraudsters insist that investors issue a mandate or power of attorney to them or to a third party who is friendly to the fraudsters allowing the fraudsters or their friend to negotiate, commit and/or use the borrower's loan proceeds to "facilitate" trading.
They will often fraudulently claim that the loans for funding projects or the opportunity for participation in HYIPs are made available only to select individuals/corporations and that they must "hurry up" as the opportunity will close soon.
They will usually fraudulently claim that the principal(s) to whom the fraudsters have direct access are commitment holders or agents licensed by the Federal Reserve (FED), or are agents for the U.S. Treasury Department or the International Monetary Fund (IMF), or are ex-bankers or former top government officials, etc.
They will demand that everything must be kept secret and if the investor or any person
associated with the investor ever tells anyone, he/she will be kicked out and never be able to participate in another such opportunity.

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C: "Third Party Fraud" or "File building" schemes
In which a "legitimate" transaction file is built up, in order to defraud a third party
So-called "Third Party Fraud" can include all, or various combinations of the above characteristics, with the exception that there appears no method for the fraudsters (programme managers, or traders) to access the investor's funds, nor does it appear that the investor's funds serve any legitimate commercial purpose in the proposed transactions. Frequently, there will be representations as to "scanning", "non-depletion accounts", "counterbalancing loans", or other highly inventive or misapplied terms, in order to convince the investor that their deposit shall not be accessible to the fraudsters.

Invariably, one of two scenarios develops:

The investor shall be presented with a document, within the body of confusing and poorly drafted paperwork, which effectively negates all prior representations as to the inaccessibility to their funds, by granting the fraudsters some form of "power" over said funds (making this fraud a simple HYIP fraud, as in A, above), or
The investor shall have little or no further contact with the fraudsters, upon completion of all the required documents, and the fraudsters will use the apparently legitimate transaction document file in order to defraud some gullible third party. This can be done by borrowing against future earnings from the purported transaction, or enticing a third party to participate in some modified form of such a transaction, in which this third party's funds shall indeed be at risk.
If you suspect an advanced-fee or HYIP scam, or have been offered a puzzling transaction in which your funds are purported to be "at no risk", or serve no visible commercial purpose in the represented transaction, please call the SCD6 Economic and Specialist Crime Intelligence Unit, New Scotland Yard on +44 (0) 20 7230 1220.

SOURCES: http://www.met.police.uk/fraudalert/howitworks.htm

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